Nonfiction > Jacob A. Riis > How the Other Half Lives > Appendix.
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Jacob A. Riis (1849–1914).  How the Other Half Lives.  1890.
 
Appendix.
 
STATISTICS BEARING ON THE TENEMENT PROBLEM.
 
STATISTICS of population were left out of the text in the hope that the results of this year’s census would be available as a basis for calculation before the book went to press. They are now at hand, but their correctness is disputed. The statisticians of the Health Department claim that New York’s population has been underestimated a hundred thousand at least, and they appear to have the best of the argument. A re-count is called for, and the printer will not wait. Such statistics as follow have been based on the Health Department estimates, except where the census source is given. The extent of the quarrel of official figures may be judged from this one fact, that the ordinarily conservative and careful calculations of the Sanitary Bureau make the death-rate of New York, in 1889, 25.19 for the thousand of a population of 1,575,073, while the census would make it 26.76 in a population of 1,482,273.   1
Population of New York, 1880 (census)1,206,299
Population of London, 1881 (census)3,816,483
Population of Philadelphia, 1880 (census)846,980
Population of Brooklyn, 1880 (census)566,689
Population of Boston, 1880 (census)362,535
Population of New York, 1889 (estimated)1,575,073
Population of London, 1889 (estimated)4,351,738
Population of Philadelphia, 1889 (estimated)1,040,245
Population of Brooklyn, 1889 (estimated)814,505
Population of Boston, 1889 (estimated)420,000
Population of New York under five years of age, in 1880140,327
Population of New York under five years of age, in 1889 (estimated)182,770
Population of tenements in New York in 1869 1 (census).468,492
Population of tenements in New York in 1888 2 (census).1,093,701
Population of tenements in New York in 1888 under five years of age143,243
Population of New York in 1880 (census)1,206,299
Population of Manhattan Island in 1880 (census)1,164,673
Population of Tenth Ward in 1880 (census)47,554
Population of Eleventh Ward in 1880 (census)68,778
Population of Thirteenth Ward in 1880 (census)37,797
Population of New York in 1890 (census)1,513,501
Population of Manhattan Island in 1890 (census)1,440,101
Population of Tenth Ward in 1890 (census)57,514
Population of Eleventh Ward in 1890 (census)75,708
Population of Thirteenth Ward in 1890 (census)45,882
Number of acres in New York City24,890
Number of acres in Manhattan Island12,673
Number of acres in Tenth Ward110
Number of acres in Eleventh Ward196
Number of acres in Thirteenth Ward107
Density of population per acre in 1880, New York City48.4
Density of population per acre in 1880, Manhattan Island92.6
Density of population per acre in 1880, Tenth Ward432.3
Density of population per acre in 1880, Eleventh Ward350.9
Density of population per acre in 1880, Thirteenth Ward353.2
Density of population per acre in 1890, New York City (census)60.08
Density of population per acre in 1890, Manhattan Island (census)114.53
Density of population per acre in 1890, Tenth Ward (census)522.00
Density of population per acre in 1890, Eleventh Ward (census)386.00
Density of population per acre in 1890, Thirteenth Ward (census)428.8
Density of population to the square mile in 1880, New York City (census)30,976
Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Manhattan Island (census)41,264
Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Tenth Ward (census)276,672
Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Eleventh Ward (census)224,576
Density of population to the square mile in 1880, Thirteenth Ward (census)226,048
Density of population to the square mile in 1890, New York City (census)38,451
Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Manhattan Island (census)73,299
Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Tenth Ward (census)334,080
Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Eleventh Ward (census)246,040
Density of population to the square mile in 1890, Thirteenth Ward (census)274,432
Number of persons to a dwelling in New York, 1880 (census)16.37
Number of persons to a dwelling in London, 1881 (census)7.9
Number of persons to a dwelling in Philadelphia, 1880 (census)5.79
Number of persons to a dwelling in Brooklyn, 1880 (census)9.11
Number of persons to a dwelling in Boston, 1880 (census)8.26
Number of deaths in New York, 188031,937
Number of deaths in London, 188181,431
Number of deaths in Philadelphia, 188017,711
Number of deaths in Brooklyn, 188013,222
Number of deaths in Boston, 18808,612
Death-rate of New York, 188026.47
Death-rate of London, 188121.3
Death-rate of Philadelphia, 188020.91
Death-rate of Brooklyn, 188023.33
Death-rate of Boston, 188023.75
Number of deaths in New York, 188939,679
Number of deaths in London, 188975,683
Number of deaths in Philadelphia, 188920,536
Number of deaths in Brooklyn, 188918,288
Number of deaths in Boston, 188910,259
Death-rate of New York, 188925.19
Death-rate of London, 188917.4
Death-rate of Philadelphia, 188919.7
Death-rate of Brooklyn, 188922.5
Death-rate of Boston, 188924.42
  For every person who dies there are always two disabled by illness, so that there was a regular average of 79,358 New Yorkers on the sick-list at any moment last year. It is usual to count 28 cases of sickness the year round for every death, and this would give a total for the year 1889 of 1,111,082 of illness of all sorts.   2
Number of deaths in tenements in New York, 186913,285
Number of deaths in tenements in New York, 188824,842
Death-rate in tenements in New York, 186928.35
Death-rate in tenements in New York, 188822.71
  This is exclusive of deaths in institutions, properly referable to the tenements in most cases. The adult death-rate is found to decrease in the larger tenements of newer construction. The child mortality increases, reaching 114.04 per cent. of 1,000 living in houses containing between 60 and 80 tenants. From this point it decreases with the adult death-rate.   3
Number of deaths in prisons, New York, 188985
Number of deaths in hospitals, New York, 18896,102
Number of deaths in lunatic asylums, New York, 1889448
Number of deaths in institutions for children, New York, 1889522
Number of deaths in homes for aged, New York, 1889238
Number of deaths in almshouse, New York, 1889424
Number of deaths in other institutions, New York, 1889162
Number of burials in city cemetery (paupers), New York, 18893,815
Percentage of such burials on total9.64
Number of tenants weeded out of overcrowded tenements, New York, 18891,246
Number of tenants weeded out of overcrowded tenements, in first half of 1890 31,068
Number of sick poor visited by summer corps of doctors, New York, 189016,501
POLICE STATISTICS
Males.Females.
Arrests made by the police in 188962,27419,926
Number of arrests for drunkenness and disorderly conduct20,2538,981
Number of arrests for disorderly conduct10,9537,477
Number of arrests for assault and battery4,534497
Number of arrests for theft4,399721
Number of arrests for robbery24710
Number of arrests for vagrancy1,686947
Prisoners unable to read or write2,3991,281
Number of lost children found in the streets, 18892,968
Number of sick and destitute cared for, 18892,753
Found sick in the streets1,211
Number of pawnshops in city, 1889110
Number of cheap lodging-houses, 1889270
Number of saloons, 18897,884
IMMIGRATION.
Immigrants landed at Castle Garden in 20 years, ending with 18895,335,396
Immigrants landed at Castle Garden in 1889349,233
Immigrants from England landed at Castle Garden in 188946,214
Immigrants from Scotland landed at Castle Garden in 188911,415
Immigrants from Ireland landed at Castle Garden in 188943,090
Immigrants from Germany landed at Castle Garden in 188975,458
1883.1884.1885.1886.1887.1888.1889.
Italy25,48514,07616,03329,31244,27443,92728,810
Russia7,57712,43216,57823,98733,20333,05231,329
Poland7,57712,43216,57823,98733,20333,05231,329
Hungary13,16015,79711,12918,13517,71912,90515,678
Bohemia4,8777,0936,6974,2226,4493,9825,412
TENEMENTS
Number of tenements in New York, December 1, 188832,390
Number built from June 1, 1888, to August 1, 18903,733
Rear tenements in existence, August 1, 18902,630
Total number of tenements, August 1, 189037,316
Estimated population of tenements, August 1, 18901,250,000
Estimated number of children under five years in tenements, 1890163,712
  Corner tenements may cover all of the lot, except 4 feet at the rear. Tenements in the block may only cover seventy-eight per cent. of the lot. They must have a rear yard 10 feet wide, and air-shafts or open courts equal to twelve per cent. of the lot.   4
  Tenements or apartment houses must not be built over 70 feet high in streets 60 feet wide.   5
  Tenements or apartment houses must not be built over 80 feet high in streets wider than 60 feet.   6

Note 1. In 1869 a tenement was a house occupied by four families or more. [ back ]

Note 2. In 1888, a tenement was a house occupied by three families or more. [ back ]

Note 3. These figures represent less than two hundred of the worst tenements below Honston Street. [ back ]

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